Surveillance Videos Capture But a Moment in Time - Z.K. v. Allstate Insurance Company Canada, 2020 CanLII 106429 (ON LAT)

February 03, 2021, Kitchener, Ontario

Posted by: Robert Deutschmann, Personal Injury Lawyer

Z.K. v. Allstate Insurance Company Canada, 2020 CanLII 106429 (ON LAT)


Date of Decision: December 8, 2020

Heard Before: Sandeep Johal, Vice Chair


CATASTROPHIC INJURY: surveillance evidence captures but a moment in time; applicant’s assessors critical of Allstate’s examination methods and conclusions


ZK was injured in a car accident on June 6, 2014, and sought benefits pursuant to the SABS from Allstate who denied the claim. ZK appealed the decision to the LAT for resolution.




  1. Has Z.K. sustained a catastrophic impairment pursuant to the Schedule?
  2. Is Z.K. entitled to payment for a medical benefits recommended for chiropractic treatment and denied by Allstate on January 18, 2017?
  3. Is Z.K. entitled to payment of a cost of examination n the amount of $4,520.00 in a treatment plan for a catastrophic neuropsychological and triage assessment recommended by Omega Medical Associates denied by Allstate on June 7, 2016?
  4. Is Z.K. entitled to interest on any overdue payment of benefits?




  1. Z.K. sustained a catastrophic impairment as a result of the accident.
  2. The chiropractic treatment plan is not reasonable and necessary, therefore Z.K. is not entitled to payment.
  3. Z.K. is entitled to the cost of examination for a neuropsychological assessment.
  4. The triage assessment is not reasonable and necessary, therefore the applicant is not entitled to payment.
  5. Z.K. is entitled to interest in accordance with s. 51 of the Schedule on the overdue payment of benefits for the neuropsychological assessment.




Catastrophic Impairment


In order to be considered CAT impaired pursuant to the Schedule Z.K. must prove on a balance of probabilities that the impairments he suffers from as a result of the accident have a combination of physical and psychological impairment ratings that result in a whole person impairment (WPI) of 55% or more when rated in accordance with the American Medical Association’s Guides; or in at least one Marked or Class 4 impairment, in any of the four domains as outlined in the Guides due to a mental or behavioural disorder. 

The test to determine whether Z.K. has sustained a catastrophic impairment is a legal test and not a medical one.



Parties’ Positions


Z.K. argues they sustained injuries and symptoms from the car accident that worsened and caused his condition to deteriorate. He applied for a Determination of CAT impairment undergoing a series of medical assessments which concluded that he indeed met the CAT Impairment designation. Z.K. relies on evidence of two psychologists, and OT, his wife and children. During his cross-examination, Z.K. testified that his back pain in 2014 after the accident was about a 7/10 in intensity and sometimes 10/10 in intensity and there are often times where he is disengaged from his family and walking off on his own. He testified that he tends to walk gingerly and on his own at times rather than together with the family.


Allstate disagrees with this determination and denied benefits. They defend their position claiming Z.K. is not a credible witness. Allstate relied on surveillance video and expert medical assessments from their psychologist and OT. Their psychologist attended the tribunal to give evidence.


Allstate relies heavily on the surveillance videos where Z.K. is seen driving a vehicle, attending a grocery store, taking items out of the shopping cart and placing them in the trunk of the car, as well as attending a park with his family where he was observed to ascend and descend stairs (with both hands on each side of the railings for support). He was further observed to bend at the waist, kneel and crouch and assist his grandchild down a slide.


Vice Chair Johal indicated that in his view, surveillance is at a moment in time and not illustrative of the overall picture of how Z.K. may really be. Although on days the surveillance took place he did not appear to be in distress as a result of his back pain or headaches Z.K.’s evidence of his self-report of pain intensity of 7/10 or 10/10 did not mean that he is unable to leave his home or is unable to walk. The surveillance evidence was taken three months after the accident and five years later, during the time of the treatment plans and his request for a catastrophic designation, his condition could have worsened.  


Vice Chair Johal did not find the surveillance to be of assistance or indicative of whether Z.K.’s injuries rise or do not rise to the level of a catastrophic impairment as described in the Schedule. As a result he did not find the surveillance significantly impeached Z.K.’s credibility.


Allstate relied heavily on the evidence of their psychologist who believed Z.K. was malingering and over reporting pain. Allstate’s psychologist used what J.K.’s psychologists claimed to be inappropriate tests to measure credibility and interpret test scores. There was no consideration given to the fact that J.K. displayed similar functional difficulties across all other tests with both OTs.


On the basis of the evidence and testimony Vice Chair Johal preferred the evidence of J.K. and accorded less weight to Allstate’s psychologist. Vice Chair Johal determined J.K. meets the CAT impairment threshold.

Posted under Accident Benefit News, Automobile Accident Benefits, Car Accidents, Catastrophic Injury, LAT Case, LAT Decisions

View All Posts

About Deutschmann Law

Deutschmann Law serves South-Western Ontario with offices in Kitchener-Waterloo, Cambridge, Woodstock, Brantford, Stratford and Ayr. The law practice of Robert Deutschmann focuses almost exclusively in personal injury and disability insurance matters. For more information, please visit or call us toll-free at 1-866-414-4878.

It is important that you review your accident benefit file with one of our experienced personal injury / car accident lawyers to ensure that you obtain access to all your benefits which include, but are limited to, things like physiotherapy, income replacement benefits, vocational retraining and home modifications.

Practice Areas

  1. Car accidents
  2. Motorcycle accidents
  3. Automobile accident benefits
  4. Catastrophic injury
  5. Brain or Head injury
  6. Paraplegia and Quadriplegia
  7. Spinal cord injury
  8. Drunk driving accidents
  9. Concussion syndrome
  10. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
  11. Slip and Fall Accidents
  12. Birth Trauma Injury
  1. Wrongful death
  2. Bicycle accidents
  3. Disability insurance claims
  4. Slip and fall injury
  5. Fractures or broken bone injury
  6. Pedestrian accidents
  7. Chronic pain
  8. Truck accidents
  9. Amputation and disfigurement
  10. Fibromyalgia
  11. Nursing Home Fatality Claims

Personal Injury Blog

Jun 22, 2021
Water Safety Precautions Can Avoid Drowning Deaths
Jun 17, 2021
Is COVID-19 linked to depression in Long-haul patients?
Jun 15, 2021
CAA Publishes Worst Roads List - Poor Road Conditions Can Be More Than a Pain In the Butt
Jun 10, 2021
NFL Pledges to Stop Using "Race Norming" - the Assumption that Black Players Have Lower Cognitive Function - When Assessing Brain Injury Claims
Jun 08, 2021
Link Between Being Racialized and Death Post Brain Injury Reported
Jun 04, 2021
Long-Haul COVID-19 Victims and LTD Claims

More Personal Injury Articles » 
Review our services

Connect with us

Facebook Twitter Linkedin Youtube